Passphrase entropy

written by Ruud van Asseldonk

While I was researching passphrase entropy today, I made a shocking discovery. Virtually any passphrase that a human can remember, does not have enough entropy to generate a strong cryptographic key. Even though most modern encryption algorithms use key sizes of 128 or 256 bits, a comparatively ‘strong’ passphrase has nowhere near this amount of entropy bits.


Entropy in information theory, is related to the number of possible values of a variable. The more possibilities, the more entropy. Entropy makes it difficult to do a brute-force attack, and it plays a role in several other types of attack. For a brute-force attack, the relation is easy to see: if a variable can have many different values, it will require much work to try all possible values. If the variable can take on only a limited amount of values, trying them all might not require that much work. Entropy is a desirable property of cryptographic keys.

The power of encryption lies in the large keyspace (the set of possible keys). Probably the most common algorithm nowadays is Rijndael with a 256-bit key. Brute-forcing a 256-bit key is simply infeasible, so a 256-bit key can be considered secure. However, this is only true if the key is random — that is, if the key has 256 bits of entropy.

Deriving keys

In many cases, the key cannot be stored. It must be remembered by a human, so data cannot be decrypted without this person’s knowledge. Unfortunately, humans are not every good at remembering a sequence of 256 bits. Even when expressed octally, it is still a sequence of 64 random digits. This is where key derivation comes into play. A key derivation algorithm generates a cryptographic key, given a passphrase. This way, a human can simply remember the passphrase, and the key can be generated wherever it is required. Even though several key derivation algorithms can convert passphrases of arbitrary length to arbitrary length keys, this does not mean that entropy increases. If a passphrase would be limited to five different words, there would be only five different keys. A key derivation algorithm cannot directly increase the entropy of a passphrase.

Typical passphrase entropy

As suggested by xkcd, one can use a combination of four common words to make up a ‘strong’ passphrase. The comic assumes entropy of eleven bits per word, resulting in 44 bits of entropy for the entire passphrase. To see how this number is derived, we must adjust our view on the brute-force attack. As it is infeasible to brute-force all 2256 keys, a different strategy is required. If we assume that all passphrases are combinations of four words, then we can simply try all possible combinations of four words as a brute-force attack. To do so, one needs a dictionary of words. The Van Dale Pocket Dictionary English – Dutch contains roughly 23000 words, which should include the most common English words. If we assume that only words from this dictionary can be used for passphrases, and we start with one-word passphrases, then there are 23000 unique options to try. The number of bits required to identify a value among 23000 possibilities, is log2(23000) ≈ 14.5 bits. (The comic assumes eleven bits per word, so it must have used a smaller dictionary.) For four words, the entropy is four times as large: 58 bits (or 44 in the comic).

It is possible to try some variations on the four-word scheme, but this does not add a significant abount of entropy. For example, making the first character of every word either uppercase or lowercase (instead of solely lowercase), adds only one bit of entropy per word. Appending a random number between zero and a thousand, adds only ten bits of entropy.

Key stretching

As it turns out, some key derivation algorithms can be used to increase the entropy of a key. Most key derivation algorithms run a large number of iterations, which makes the derivation computationally expensive. Brute-forcing a certain amount of keys, is computationally expensive as well. Key stretching relies on the principle that deriving the key in an expensive way, requires an amount of work equal to brute-forcing a certain number of keys. If a key of ten bits can be brute-forced in five seconds, then requiring the key derivation to take five seconds effectively increases the entropy of the key with ten bits. This technique can be used to increase the entropy of a key with at most a few dozen bits, but still — that is nowhere near the 256 available bits.


I have not found a good solution to this problem yet. (If you have, feel free to share it with me.) The most obvious solution is to have an alternative source of entropy; a keyfile. However, the keyfile has several other problems that make its source of entropy rather useless. The keyfile must be stored, which is a major problem in itself. After all, keyfiles only make it harder for an attacker to find the key. In the end — even if you have a perfectly random key — there are always alternative ways for an attacker to break your encryption.

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