The task monad in C#

written by Ruud van Asseldonk

Today I was trying to compose several asynchronous methods in C#. These methods all had one argument, and returned a Task<T>. The idea was very simple: the first method returns a Task<A>. The second method takes an A and returns a Task<B>. The third method takes a B, etc. As it turns out, there is no easy way to compose these methods in C#, even though there should be.

The System.Threading.Tasks namespace is very well designed, and overall everything seems to be thought through very well. However, in this particular case, the framework seems to lack an obvious composition operation. Consider the following scenario:

class A { ... }
class B { ... }
class C { ... }
class D { ... }

Task<B> Method1(A a) { ... }
Task<C> Method2(B b) { ... }
Task<D> Method3(C c) { ... }

I would like to compose these methods, to create a method with the following signature:

Task<D> Composed(A a) { ... }

Before tackling the general case of n methods, consider composing Method1 and Method2, to end up with the method:

Task<C> Composed12(A a) { ... }

Using the ContinueWith method, a naive composition operation might be as follows:

Task<...> Composed12(A a)
  return Method1(a).ContinueWith(tb => Method2(tb.Result));

This works, but the method has the wrong return type. The result is now wrapped twice in a task. To solve this issue, one might write:

Task<C> Composed12(A a)
  return Method1(a).ContinueWith(tb => Method2(tb.Result).Result);

However, this is not really a continuation: it blocks. The overall result is the same, but as soon as the task returned by Method1 is completed, the continuation task will block, waiting for the result of Method2. This essentially wastes a thread. One could use Unwrap, which does solve the problem in many cases, but not when a task fails or when it is cancelled.


If you have ever done some functional programming, you might recognise something here. Task<T> is a monad, and the composition operation I am looking for is the monadic composition operation (usually called bind). Given two methods, one that returns a Task<B>, and one that takes a B and returns a Task<C>, composition should give me a method that returns a Task<C>. This is exactly what bind does. In the context of tasks, the name ‘bind’ might seem a bit odd. A more natural name in this case, would be ‘then’. Peculiar enough, the designers of Task did not include such a method. Fortunately, implementations of this method have been written. Using this Then method, composition becomes easy and elegant:

Task<C> Composed12(A a)
  return Method1(a).Then(Method2);

Task<D> Composed(A a)
  return Method1(a).Then(Method2).Then(Method3);

The default choice of continuing the task synchronously might not always be desired, but this can easily be changed.


For Task<T> to be a monad, it not only requires a ‘bind’ method, but a ‘return’ method as well. The return method is nothing like the return statement in C#. What it does, is convert a non-monadic value, into a monadic value. In other words, it converts T into a Task<T>. The .NET framework 4.5 implements return: it is called Task.FromResult. For earlier versions, a manual implementation is very simple:

Task<T> Return<T>(T t)
  var tcs = new TaskCompletionSource<T>();
  return tcs.Task;

In the case of my composed method above, this would allow one to write:

Task<D> Composed(A a)
  return Return(a).Then(Method1).Then(Method2).Then(Method3);

As you can see, this has little advantage over the original form. Moreover, when the synchronous continuation implementation of Then is used, this will block! There might still be cases where return could be useful though.

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